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Computer history - 1940 - 1960

Year Event
1940 The first handheld two-way radio called the "Handy Talkie" is created by Motorola for the U.S. Army Signal Control.
1940 Alan Kay is born May 17, 1940.
1940 Clive Sinclair is born July 3, 1940
1940 John Warnock is born October 6, 1940.
1941 David Parnas is born February 10, 1941.
1941 Amir Pnueli is born April 22, 1941.
1941 August-Wilhelm Scheer is born July 27, 1941.
1941 German Konrad Zuse finishes the Z3, a fully program-operational calculating machine. The computer is publically introduced in Berlin May 12, 1941.
1941 Dennis Ritchie is born September 9, 1941.
1941 Henry Edward Roberts is born September 13, 1941.
1941 Chester Carlson gets patent for electric photography more commonly known today as photocopying October 6, 1941.
1941 Alan Kotok is born November 9, 1941.
1941 Federico Faggin is born December 1, 1941.
1942 Brian Kernighan is born in 1942.
1942 Edward Tufte is born in 1942.
1942 Steven Hawking is born January 8, 1942.
1942 Armas Markkula is born February 11, 1942.
1942 David Cutler is born March 13, 1942.
1942 Gary Kildall is born May 19, 1942.
1942 Enrico Fermi designs and creates the world's first Nuclear Reactor December 2, 1942.
1943 John Draper is born in 1943.
1943 Nikola Tesla passes away January 7, 1943.
1943 Charles Thacker is born February 26, 1943.
1943 David S. Morse is born April 15, 1943.
1943 Vint Cerf is born June 23, 1943.
1943 The Colossus, the first eclectic programmable computer developed by Tommy Flowers is first demonstrated in December 1943.
1943 Butler Lampson is born December 23, 1943.
1943 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), the first general-purpose electronic digital calculator begins to be constructed. This computer by most is considered to be the first electronic computer.
1943 Dan Noble with Motorola designs a "Walkie Talkie" the first portable FM two-way radio that a backpack version that weighed 35 pounds.
1944 Donald Chamberlin is born in 1944.
1944 Andrew Tanenbaum is born March 16, 1944.
1944 David Clark is born April 7, 1944.
1944 Edward Yourdon is born April 30, 1944.
1944 Bailey Diffie is born June 5, 1944.
1944 The Harvard Mark I computer is officially presented at Harvard University on August 7, 1944. The relay-based Harvard-IBM MARK I a large programmable-controlled calculating machine provides vital calculations for the U.S. Navy. Grace Hopper becomes its programmer.
1944 The first binary, and partially programmable computer, Colossus, was created at Bletchley Park.
1944 Steve Crocker is born October 15, 1944.
1944 Abhay Bhushan is born November 23, 1944.
1945 Lee Felsenstein is born in 1945.
1945 Patent is filed for the Harvard Mark I digital computer on February 8, 1945.
1945 John Ambrose Fleming passes away April 18, 1945.
1945 Adele Goldberg is born July 7, 1945.
1945 Edmund Clarke is born July 27, 1945.
1945 The Von Neumann Architecture and a description of a general purpose electronic digital computer with a stored programs is introduced in John von Neumann's report of the EDVAC.
1945 The term bug as computer bug was termed by Grace Hopper when programming the MARK II.
1945 The first ballpoint pen goes on sale in New York for $12.50 on October 30, 1945.
1946 Freddie Williams applies for a patent on his cathode-ray tube (CRT) storing device in December. The device that later became known as the Williams tube is capable of storing between 512 and 1024 bits of data.
1946 Konrad Zuse writes the first algorithmic programming language called 'Plankalkül'.
1946 ENIAC computer completed.
1946 Brooklyn New York's Flatbush National Bank becomes the first bank to issue a credit card in 1946.
1946 Robert Metcalfe is born April 7, 1946.
1946 The Selectron tube capable of storing 256 bits of information begins development.
1946 Andrew Chi-Chih Yao is born December 24, 1946.
1947 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. file patent #2,455,992 describing one of the first computer games played on a CRT January 25, 1947.
1947 Robert Cailliau is born January 26, 1947.
1947 Freddie Williams memory system known as the Williams tube is now in working order.
1947 Kenneth Arnold makes the first widely reported UFO sighting on June 24, 1947.
1947 Ben Shneiderman is born August 21, 1947.
1947 Edward Shortliffe is born August 28, 1947.
1947 Jay Forrester extends the life of a vacuum tube from 500 to 500,000 hours.
1947 ISO is founded.
1947 The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is established September 18, 1947.
1947 David Patterson is born November 16, 1947.
1947 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley invent the first transistor at the Bell Laboratories on December 23, 1947.
1948 IBM builds the SSEC (Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator). The computer contains 12,000 tubes.
1948 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley patent the first transistor.
1948 Andrew Donald Booth creates magnetic drum memory, which is two inches long and two inches wide and capable of holding 10 bits per inch.
1948 William Gibson is born March 17, 1948.
1948 Scott Fahlman is born March 21, 1948.
1948 The 604 multiplying punch, based upon the vacuum tube technology, is produced by IBM.
1948 Carol Bartz is born August 29, 1948.
1948 Charles Simonyi is born in September 10, 1948
1948 The television begins to divert radio audiences.
1949 David Bradley is born in 1949.
1949 Claude Shannon builds the first machine that plays chess at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
1949 The concept of a computer program capable of reproducing itself was first mentioned by John von Neumann in his 1949 "Theory of self-reproducing automata" essay.
1949 The Harvard-MARK III, the first of the MARK machines to use an internally stored program and indirect addressing, goes into operations again under the direction of Howard Aiken.
1949 The first computer company, Electronic Controls Company is founded by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the same individuals who helped create the ENIAC computer.
1949 The EDSAC performs its first calculation on May 6, 1949.
1949 Alain Glavieux is born July 4, 1949.
1949 Popular Mechanics predicts: "Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons."
1949 The small-scale electronic machine (SSEM) is fully operational at Manchester University.
1949 The Australian computer CSIRAC is first ran.
1950 Bertrand Meyer is born in 1950.
1950 Dave Boggs is born in 1950.
1950 Douglas Lenat is born in 1950.
1950 The United States Government receives the UNIVAC 1101 or ERA 1101 in 1950. This computer is considered to be the first computer that was capable of storing and running a program from memory.
1950 The first electronic computer is created in Japan by Hideo Yamachito.
1950 Konrad Zuse completes and sells the Z4 on July 12, 1950, becoming the first commercial computer.
1950 Steve Wozniak is born August 11, 1950.
1950 Alan Turing publishes his paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence in October. This paper helps create the Turing Test.
1950 The NICAD battery begins its commercial use.
1950 Mitchell Kapor is born November 1, 1950.
1950 Bjarne Stroustrup is born December 30, 1950.
1951 Radia Perlman is born in 1951.
1951 The first business computer, the Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) is completed by T. Raymond Thompson, John Simmons and their team at Lyons Co.
1951 The first commercial computer, the "First Ferranti MARK I" is now functional at Manchester University.
1951 The first ISO is published with the title, "Standard reference temperature for industrial length measurement."
1951 UNIVAC I was introduced.
1951 The EDVAC begins performing basic tasks.
1951 Dean Kamen is born April 5, 1951.
1951 Jay Forrester applies for a patent for magnetic core memory, the first random access memory (RAM) May 11, 1951.
1951 The Nixie tube is first introduced.
1951 Grace Hopper develops A-0, the first Arithmetic language.
1951 Dan Bricklin is born July 16, 1951.
1951 Bill Atkinson is born in 1951.
1952 Fred Baker is born in 1952.
1952 Complaint is filed against IBM for Monopolistic practices on January 1952.
1952 Alan Cooper is born June 3, 1952.
1952 Adi Shamir is born July 6, 1952.
1952 Geoffrey Dummer a British radar engineer introduces the concept of the integrated circuit at a tech conference in the United States.
1952 Fairly reliable working magnetic drum memories for use in computers begin to be sold by Andrew Donald Booth and his father.
1952 RIAA is established.
1952 The first ASR device was used to recognize single digits spoken by a user (it was not computer driven).
1952 Alexander Sandy Douglas created the first graphical computer game of Tic-Tac-Toe on an EDSAC known as "OXO."
1952 The National Security Agency (NSA) is formed November 4, 1952.
1952 Craig Newmark is born December 6, 1952
1953 David Deutsch is born in 1953.
1953 James Martin is born in 1953.
1953 IBM introduces the 701 to the public April 7, 1953. The 701 is IBM's first electric computer and first mass produced computer.
1953 The UNIVAC predicts the presidential election during a televised news broadcast.
1953 A magnetic memory smaller and faster than existing vacuum tube memories is built at MIT.
1953 Paul Allen is born January 21, 1953.
1953 Craig Reynolds is born March 15, 1953.
1953 Richard Stallman is born March 16, 1953.
1953 Andy Hertzfeld is born April 6, 1953.
1953 The IBM 701 becomes available to the scientific community. A total of 19 are produced and sold.
1953 Florian Brody is born October 31, 1953.
1953 The Colgate Comedy Hour on N.B.C. becomes the first TV show to broadcast in color on November 22, 1953.
1954 IBM produces and markets the IBM 650. More than 1,800 of these computers are sold in an eight-year span, with 120 installations in the first year.
1954 Daniel Kottke is born April 4, 1954.
1954 Tim O'Reilly is born June 6, 1954.
1954 Alan Turing passes away June 7, 1954.
1954 The USSR's Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant opens June 27, 1954 and becomes the first Nuclear power plant to generate electricity.
1954 The first version of FORTRAN (formula translator) is published by IBM.
1954 Texas Instruments announces the start of commercial production of silicon transistors.
1954 IBM becomes the first company to translate Russian into English using a computer.
1954 Larry Wall is born September 27, 1954.
1954 CERN is established on September 29, 1954.
1954 IBM introduces its first calculating machine that uses solid-state transistors instead of vacuum tubes October 7, 1954.
1954 The first commercially produced transistor radio, the Regency TR-1 is announced October 18, 1954.
1954 William Joy is born November 8, 1954.
1955 Steve Jobs is born February 24, 1955.
1955 MIT introduces the Whirlwind machine March 8, 1955, a revolutionary computer that was the first digital computer with magnetic core RAM and real-time graphics.
1955 Tom Watson, IBM's president is featured on the front of Time Magazine March 28, 1955.
1955 Albert Einstein passes away on April 18, 1955.
1955 Eric Schmidt is born April 27, 1955.
1955 John McCarthy coins the term Artificial Intelligence (AI) in 1955 at Dartmouth University.
1955 Dartmouth Colleges John McCarthy coins the term "artificial intelligence."
1955 Dave Winer is born May 2, 1955.
1955 Tim Bernes-Lee is born June 8, 1955.
1955 Donna Dubinsky is born July 4, 1955.
1955 Andreas (Andy) von Bechtolsheim is born September 30, 1955.
1955 William (Bill) H. Gates is born October 28, 1955.
1955 IBM introduces the first IBM 702.
1955 Bell Labs introduces its first transistor computer. Transistors are faster, smaller and create less heat than traditional vacuum tubs, making these computers more reliable and efficient.
1955 The ENIAC is turned off for the last time. Its estimated to have done more arithmetic than the entire human race had done prior to 1945.
1956 John von Neumann is presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Dwight Eisenhower on February 15, 1956.
1956 Alexey Leonidovich Pajitnov is born on March 14, 1956.
1956 Steve Ballmer is born March 24, 1956.
1956 The TX-O (Transistorized Experimental computer) and first transistorized computer is demonstrated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
1956 Tim Paterson is born June 1, 1956.
1956 Thomas Watson passes away June 19, 1956.
1956 Dr. Robert Adler of Zenith invents the first cordless TV remote control in 1956.
1956 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley are awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for their work on the transistor.
1956 On September 13, 1956 the IBM 305 RAMAC is the first computer to be shipped with a hard drive that contained 50 24-inch platters and was capable of storing 5 million characters and weighed a ton.
1956 Wen Tsing Chow develops PROM.
1956 The programming language FORTRAN is introduced to the public October 15, 1956.
1956 Leo Laporte is born November 29, 1956.
1957 Carl Sassenrath is born in 1957.
1957 IBM announces it will no longer be using vacuum tubes and releases its first computer that had 2000 transistors.
1957 Fred Cohen is born in 1957.
1957 Barry Leiba is born in 1957.
1957 John von Neumann passes away February 8, 1957 (age of 53)
1957 Emil Post passes away on April 21, 1954 (age 57)
1957 Bruce Eckel is born July 8, 1957.
1957 Fairchild Semiconductor is founded by Andy Grove, Eugene Kleiner, Gordon Moore, Jerry Sanders, Robert Noyce.
1957 Digital Equipment Corporation is founded by Kenneth Olsen. The company will later become a major network computer manufacturer.
1957 Russia launches the first artificial satellite, named Sputnik on October 4, 1957.
1957 In response to Sputnik the United States creates the new agency ARPA.
1957 Casio is established.
1957 Eric Raymond is born December 4, 1957.
1958 Shafi Goldwasser is born in 1958.
1958 Clair Lake passes away in 1958.
1958 The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is renamed to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
1958 Control Data Corporation introduces Seymour Cray's 1604 for $1.5 Million, half the cost of the IBM computer.
1958 NEC builds its first computer the NEAC 1101.
1958 William Higinbotham created the first video game called: Tennis for Two.
1958 The programming language FORTRAN II is created. Later FORTRAN III is created but never released to the public.
1958 President Eisenhowers Christmas address is the first voice transmission from a satellite.
1958 Steve Case is born August 21, 1958.
1958 The first integrated circuit is first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.
1959 Feng-hsiung Hsu is born in 1959.
1959 Danese Cooper is born January 19, 1959.
1959 Hitachi is founded.
1959 The Harvard-MARK I is turned off for the last time.
1959 Dudley Buck passes away May 21, 1959 (Age: 32).
1959 Robert Noyce creates an integrated circuit with component connections made of aluminum lines on silicon.
1959 The Luna 2 becomes the first human made object to land on the moon on September 14, 1959.
1959 Edith Clarke passes away on October 29, 1959 (age 76)
1959 Leonard Kleinrock starts to developing packetization.
1959 Motorola produces the two-way, fully transistorized mobile radio.
1959 Panasonic is founded.
1959 David Culler is born November 12, 1959.

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